Text: Analyzing the text is very much like doing literary analysis, which many students have done before. Use all of your tools of literary analysis, including looking at the metaphors, rhythm of sentences, construction of arguments, tone, style, and use of language. Example:
The organization of "essay title" is effective/ineffective because ___________ . The essay's opening causes the reader to ___________ . The essay's style is ___________ and the tone is shown by ___________ . The language used is___________ . The essay's argument is constructed logically/illogically by ___________. The essay is organized by ___________ (give a very brief description of the structure of the essay, perhaps telling where the description of the problem is, where claims are made, and where support is located—in which paragraphs—and why this is effective or ineffective in proving the point).
Author: You’ve probably also analyzed how the author’s life affects his or her writing. You can do the same for this sort of analysis. For example, in my sample reading the response about Michael Crichton's "Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves" article, students noted that the fact that Crichton is the author of doomsday thrillers like Andromeda Strain and Jurassic Park makes his argument that we shouldn't pay much attention to current doomsday scenarios like global warming rather ironic. If you don't know anything about the author, you can always do a quick Google Search to find out. Sample format:
The author establishes his/her authority by ___________ . The author's bias is shown in ___________ . The author assumes an audience who ___________ . He/She establishes common ground with the audience by ___________ .
Reader: You can write this section by inferring who the intended reader is, as well as looking at the text from the viewpoint of other sorts of readers. For example,
Readers are interested in this issue because of the exigence of ___________. Constraints on the reader's reaction are ___________. I think the reader would react to this argument by ___________. I think that the author's ___________ is effective. ___________ is less effective because ___________ includes ___________. The support is adequate/inadequate and is relevant/irrelevant to the author’s claim.
Writing the Summary Essay:
A summary essay should be organized so that others can understand the source or evaluate your comprehension of it. The following format works well:
Introduction (usually one paragraph)
1. Contains a one-sentence thesis statement that sums up the main point of the source.
This thesis statement is not your main point; it is the main point of your source. Usually, though, you have to write this statement rather than quote it from the source text. It is a one-sentence summary of the entire text that your essay summarizes.
2. Also introduces the text to be summarized:
(i) Gives the title of the source (following the citation guidelines of whatever style sheet you are using);
(ii) Provides the name of the author of the source;
(ii) Sometimes also provides pertinent background information about the author of the source or about the text to be summarized.
The introduction should not offer your own opinions or evaluation of the text you are summarizing.
Body (one or more paragraphs):
This paraphrases and condenses the original piece. In your summary, be sure that you:
1. Include important data but omit minor points;
2. Include one or more of the author’s examples or illustrations (these will bring your summary to life);
3. Do not include your own ideas, illustrations, metaphors, or interpretations. Look
upon yourself as a summarizing machine; you are simply repeating what the source text says, in fewer words and in your own words. But the fact that you are using your own words does not mean that you are including your own ideas.
There is customarily no conclusion to a summary essay.
When you have summarized the source text, your summary essay is finished. Do not add your own concluding paragraph unless your teacher specifically tells you to.
Summaries identify the source of original text.
Summaries demonstrate your understanding of a text's subject matter.
Summaries are shorter (at least 60% shorter) than the original text--they omit the original text's "examples, asides, analogies, and rhetorical strategies.
Summaries differ from paraphrases--paraphrases more closely follow the original text's presentation (they still use your words, but they are longer than summaries).
Summaries focus exclusively on the presentation of the writer's main ideas--they do not include your interpretations or opinions.
Summaries normally are written in your own words--they do not contain extended quotes or paraphrases.
Summaries rely on the use of standard signal phrases ("According to the author..."; "The author believes..."; etc.).
Tips on Writing Summaries
Step One (Prewriting):
Read the article quickly.
Try to get a sense of the article's general focus and content.
Step Two (Drafting):
Restate the article's thesis simply and in your own words.
Restate each paragraph's topic simply and in your own words.
Step Three (Revising):
Combine sentences in Step Two to form your summary; organize your summary sentences in the same order as the main ideas in the original text.
Edit very carefully for neatness and correctness.