DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis Study Guide. This is a five page worksheet on DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis. It consists of fill in the blank questions, short answer questions and a few true/false questions. This can be used as a review for a test, a quiz, or for homework questions. This review guide is comprehensive in its coverage of DNA and RNA structures, replication, transcription and translation.
PLEASE NOTE: This PowerPoint is also included in a bundled unit plan containing 20 different products on DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis. You can view the bundled unit plan by clicking here: DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis Complete Unit Plan.
The questions are appropriate for Biology I high school students. It is easily adaptable for your particular class. Simply delete the questions you don't want and add a few of your own. All answers are included.
Your download will include the five page student worksheet and a 3 page answer key. You will receive both a pdf version and a Word document.
Also included is a chart of amino acids and the 64 codon combinations.
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1. Transcription: DNA is too large to leave the nucleus so the protein code it contains must leave the nucleus. A process called transcription form a structure called m-RNA. This mRNA will leave the nucleus and land on a cell organelle called the ribosome.
2. Translation: t-RNA is a specialized form of RNA used to carry a specific amino acid to the ribosome and place it in the proper position.
Before translation ribosomes consist of 2 separate sub-units or parts. As translation proceeds the ribosome parts come together to allow protein synthesis to begin.
There are 3 steps to protein synthesis:
1. Initiation: m-RNA binds to the small subunit of the ribosome. There is 1 binding site for the m-RNA, and 2 binding sites for the t-RNA. The P site holds for the t-RNA carrying the growing polypeptide and the A site for the t-RNA carrying the next amino acid. AUG (start codon) is in place and the appropriate t-RNA delivers the amino acid Methionine. The large sub unit then joins and creates a functional ribosome.
2. Elongation: The chain moves from the 5' - 3' direction caused by the use of GTP and several protein-enzyme complexes. As the polypeptide chain is produced the t-RNA move from site A to site P, and then are released into the cytoplasm. The polypeptide chain continues to grow, and is held to the ribosome by the t-RNA at the P site.
3. Termination: The termination codons: UAA, UAG, and UGA stop the process by adding water to the end of the chain instead of an amino acid. In order for the protein to become functional, it must be folded into its appropriate shape,and/ or have some amino acids removed, and/or have some of the polypeptides modified by adding sugars or phosphate groups to them.
Much of the DNA does not code for the protein. Some eukaryotic DNA has long non coding portions called Introns. The coded portions of the DNA are called exons. Before the m-RNA leaves the nucleus the introns are cut out and the exons are spliced together and can now carry on its function.
ATP-Man · 1 decade ago