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Essay about social media and real life

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And life media social real about Essay

   Chapter 4 NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Researchers of kinesics study either the form or the function of nonverbal communication.Birdwhistell's (1952, 1970) and Ekman and Friesen's (1969, 1972, 1974) work is discussed in this chapter as representative of the two areas of research in this field.Birdwhistell's research indicates that gestures and speech are closely related, and share certain structures.Ekman and Friesen show how gestures can function to replace, emphasize, or clarify words.All three researchers provide evidence that the division between language and gestures is not as distinct as previously thought.The final section of this chapter discusses other researchers' works relating speech and non-verbal communication. 4.1 Kinesic Form Birdwhistell (1970) describes kines as the smallest behavioral unit distinctly perceived by the viewer.Kines can be combined into kinemorphs, which are the smallest meaningful gestural units.Birdwhistell discusses in great detail his view of the relationship between gestures and speech.He notes that certain types of kinesic structures (e.g., kinesic stress superfixes, and kinesic markers) occur simultaneously with linguistic structures with which they are associated. Kinesic markers are gestures which are used to mark, inter alia, pronouns, pluralization, and location. Birdwhistell repeatedly cautions against concluding that kinesic markers are derived from their linguistic environment.Instead, he hypothesizes that certain kinesic and linguistic forms are "alloforms" at a certain level.Under this hypothesis, neither form is subordinate to the other.Birdwhistell (1952) develops a notational system to represent the possible kines.Many others (e.g., Bull, 1981, Frey and von Cranach, 1973, and Mehrabian, 1968) follow in his wake by developing their own coding systems.Although the specifics of these coding systems are not germane to this dissertation, they are mentioned here to indicate that the structure of nonverbal communication is an active field of study. 4.2Kinesic FunctionEkman and Friesen (1969, 1972) focus upon the function, rather than the form, of nonverbal behaviors.They categorize such behaviors by their origins, i.e., innate, experientially derived species universal, or specific to a culture, class, family, or individual, by their coding, i.e., arbitrary, iconic, or intrinsically encoded, and by their usage.Five possible usages were discussed.Emblems are gestures consciously used by members of a society in addition to, or in place of, words.Within the society, they have a fixed, accepted meaning.An example would be a shoulder shrug in the United States to indicate that one does not know something.Eibl-Eibesfelt (1972) claims that at least one emblem, the eyebrow flash is universal.Morris, Collett, Marsh, and O'Shaughnessy (1979) describe several emblems which are culturally specific in occurrence, meaning, or both.Other researchers call emblems by other names; e.g., semiotic gestures (Barakat, 1969), symbolic or emblematic gestures (Efron, 1972), formal pantomimic gestures (Weiner, Devoe, Rubinow, and Geller, 1972), and autonomous gestures (Kendon, 1983).The next use of nonverbal behaviors is as illustrators. Illustrators are less standardized than emblems, and they are used to elaborate or comment upon the content of the accompanying speech.Ekman and Friesen (1972: 358 - 359) note that illustrators are  similar to emblems in that they are used with awareness and intentionality, although the use of illustrators is usually in peripheral, not focal awareness. Illustrators, unlike emblems, occur only in conversation, are used only by a speaker, i.e., not by a listener, and often have no precise verbal equivalent.Ekman and Friesen identify eight different types of illustrators.The types are not mutually exclusive; i.e., a given illustrator may function as a cluster of types.Batons are a type of illustrator which stress a word or phrase.An example of a baton would be a speaker's hand striking the table while the speaker said `not' in the following sentence, "I shall NOT endure this any longer!"Ideographs are movements which indicate the direction of thought.An example of the use ideographs would be counting out the steps of a procedure on one's hands while orally describing each of the steps.Deictic movements point to objects, places, or events.Spatial movements show spatial relationships, such as the location of two objects with respect to one another.Rhythmic movements show the pacing of an event.Snapping one's fingers while uttering, "It happened just like that," indicates that the event being discussed occurred quickly.The finger snapping is a rhythmic movement.Kinetographs show the movement of someone or something.An instance of a kinetograph is miming holding a phone while saying, "I'm going to call him." Pictographs are movements drawing pictures in the air.For example, pictographs can be used to indicate the shape of a window.Finally, emblematic movements are emblems functioning as illustrators.Appendix E includes a revised version of this typology, along with more extensive list of examples for each type of illustrator.Illustrators and other kinesic behaviors have been hypothesized to function in one of three ways.First, they may be used to facilitate comprehension of speech by means of indicating phonological structure (Dittman, 1972, Dittman and Llewellyn, 1968, Pittenger, Hockett, and Danehy, 1960), indicating syntactic structure (Lindenfeld, 1971), or indicating the flow of thought, (Efron, 1941, Scheflen, 1964).Second, they may be used to reveal information about the speaker's attitudes and emotions; e.g., the amount of enthusiasm (Ekman and Friesen, 1974), or the degree of effort used in attempting to be persuasive (Mehrabian and Williams, 1969).Finally, illustrators may be used to help the speaker encode speech (Cohen, 1977), or they may even be, as Kendon (1980:348-349) states, an  alternative manifestation of the processes by which "ideas" are encoded into patterns of behavior...It is as if the process of utterance has two channels of output into behavior: one by way of speech, the other by way of bodily movement. McNeill (1979) and Condon (1976) both support Kendon's position.Cohen and Harrison (1973) find that subjects use illustrators more when they speak face-to-face with someone than they do when they speak on an intercom.Rogers (1978) establishes that subjects make use of a speaker's illustrators to comprehend a message, especially under circumstances of degraded aural input.Graham and Argyle (1975) ascertain that the use of illustrators improves the ability of one set of subjects to communicate the shapes of geometric figures to other subjects.All of these studies indicate that illustrators are useful in the encoding and decoding of messages.This research provides the basis for hypothesis 2b of Chapter One which states that, if the relationship between signing ability and amount of BC used is linear, BC serves a communicative purpose.Ekman and Friesen (1972) note that speakers use illustrators less when they are tired, apathetic, in a subordinate relationship with the listener, or are in a formal situation and are trying to impress the listener.Speakers use illustrators more when the opposite of any of the above situations is true, or when they are having a difficult time conveying their message to the listener.Hypothesis four in this dissertation, which states that individuals will use more BC when they are relaxed than when they are tense, stems from this study.The last three types of nonverbal behaviors which Ekman and Friesen describe are affect displays, regulators, and adaptors.Affect displays reveal emotions, e.g., waving a fist to show anger.Regulators are used to guide the flow of the conversation.Fillers such as um, er, and uh are used as regulators to indicate that the speaker wishes to continue speaking.Adaptors are movements which are used to satisfy an individual's physical or psychological needs.Thumb sucking is an example of an adaptor used by many children. 4.3Speech and Gestures: Other Researchers' WorkThe relationship between speech and gestures has been discussed by several researchers.McNeill (1979, 1985, 1986), and McNeill and Levy (1982) examine "iconic," or pantomimic gestures, defined as a gesture "which depicts in its form or manner of execution aspects of the event or situation being described verbally" (pg. 275). These iconic gestures seem to be the equivalent of Ekman and Friesen's illustrators and emblems.They report that half of the time these gestures occur before the verb with which they were associated. McNeill (1985:351) states that [illustrators] are movements that...occur only during speech, are synchronized with linguistic units, are parallel in semantic and pragmatic functions to the synchronized linguistic units, perform text functions like speech, dissolve like speech in aphasia, and develop together with speech in children.Because of these similarities, a strong case can be made for regarding gestures and speech as part of a common psychological structure. He furthers his case for considering such gestures to be true symbols by pointing out that speakers sometimes express part of a cognitive representation in the oral mode, and the rest by gestures.An example he cites involves a subject describing a cartoon in which an old lady brandishing an umbrella chases a cat out of the house.The subject said, "She chases him out again."However, the subject mimed gripping an object in his hand and swinging it from left to right.This information that the lady was armed was conveyed solely by gestures, not by speech. McNeill believes that this example supported his position that speech and gestures are two parts of a single psychological structure.McNeill (1986: 108) therefore recognizes the importance of studying what he calls the iconic gesture channel because it  can be used as a second channel of observation onto the speaker's mental representations during speech; the first channel being speech itself.These channels can be compared: a kind of `triangulation' onto the speaker's mental representation.Thus an interest in studying gestures is to obtain an enriched view of the internal mental processes of speakers. Engel (1976) examines the linguistic and kinesic behavior of Canadian bilinguals and African Americans engaged in code-switching.He finds that code switching involves both language and kinesics; but the two modalities are not treated in parallel fashion...Kinesics seems more closely associated with culture than with language...A change in kinesic style appeared as an integral part of register switching in response to change in social situation.Such changes in register occurred only after the shift in kinesic behaviors.Culture preceded language. (pp. 236-237)  Slama-Cazacu (1976) describes instances of mixed syntax, or sentences involving a mode-switch.One example, provided by Kendon (1988:135), is, "Their parents are professors, but the kids are /GESTURE/." The gesture, unaccompanied by speech, was one of disgust.In mixed syntax sentences, gestures are used to substitute for linguistic elements, typically at a level higher than the word, within the sentence.Slama- Cazacu (1976:225) concludes that it is difficult to separate the code of verbal signs from the code of kinesic signs (gestures and facial mimicry).In such cases, these codes, which actually do combine in the subjects' consciousness, also achieve a linguistic synthesis, on the grammatical metalanguage plane, in one single code, structured sui generis and comprising verbal and facial mimicry - gestural elements mutually modified and fused in LINGUISTICALLY analyzable units. (emphasis in original) Kendon (1984), citing Slama-Cazacu, claims that a speaker transmits a message via both speech and gesticulation in order to communicate it in the most economic and efficient manner possible.Like Birdwhistell and McNeill, he emphasizes that gesticulation is not subordinate to speech, but that both are employed coordinately with the goal of representing meaning.Kendon (1988:136) also claims that there is no clear-cut division between what McNeill calls iconic gestures, which function holistically, and emblems or signs, which function "like words."Rather, gestures can become lexicalized.He cites as evidence for this the descriptions by Tervoort (1961) and Klima and Bellugi (1979) of how certain mimed gestures gradually lost their iconicity, became much simpler and more arbitrary movements, and acquired a broader meaning in the process of becoming lexicalized as signs in Dutch and American Sign Language.Kendon believes that these documented instances indicate that, when speech is impossible for whatever reason, autonomous gestures can become organized into a gesture system, which can in turn evolve into a full sign language.This dissertation adapts Ekman and Friesen's functional description of nonverbal behavior, and especially of their classification of illustrators.It also supports Kendon's position by providing instances of signs, which he would consider lexical gestures (i.e., verbal), being used as illustrators (which have traditionally been thought to be non-verbal).There is no implication in the above that the author believes that ASL can be reduced to lexical gestures.She is fully aware that ASL, as any language, is not merely a lexicon, but that it has its own phonology, morphology, and syntax.She merely wishes to indicate that this research might provide evidence that speakers who know sign make use of ASL's lexicon when they are conversing in a spoken language. 4.4SummaryResearch in kinesics has shown that gestures are closely tied to speech.Kinesic structure parallels linguistic structure.Illustrators, a type of gesture, might be used to facilitate the production or the comprehension of speech.They can be used in addition to, or instead of, speech to convey information.McNeill claims that gestures and speech are two manifestations of a single psychological structure.Kendon, inter alia, furthers this claim by stating that there are no clear-cut divisions among signs, emblems, and illustrators.The research in this dissertation supports this view by providing examples of signs being used as illustrators and emblems and being interpolated into the gestural stream among non-sign gestures.   NOTES